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论嫉妒(培根)
编辑:三十八中学南陵路分校王莉 发布时间:2014-01-20 【 】【打印】 阅读次数:998
      There be none of the affections, which have been noted to fascinate or bewitch, but love and envy.  They both have vehement wishes; they frame themselves readily into imaginations and suggestions; and they come easily into the eye, especially upon the present of the objects; which are the points that conduce to fascination, if any such thing there be.  We see likewise, the Scripture calleth envy an evil eye; and the astrologers, call the evil influences of the stars, evil aspects; so that still there seemeth to be acknowledged, in the act of envy, an ejaculation or irradiation of the eye.Nay, some have been so curious, as to note, that the times when the stroke or percussion of an envious eye doth most hurt, are when the party envied is beheld in glory or triumph; for that sets an edge upon envy: and besides, at such times the spirits of the person envied, do come forth most into the outward parts, and so meet the blow.
    
  But leaving these curiosities (though not unworthy to be thought on, in fit place), we will handle, what persons are apt to envy others; what  persons are most subject to be envied themselves; and what is the difference between public and private envy.
  
  A man that hath no virtue in himself, ever envieth virtue in others.  For men's minds, will either feed upon their own good, or upon others' evil; and who wanteth the one, will prey upon the other; and whoso is out of hope, to attain to another's virtue, will seek to come at even hand, by depressing another's fortune.
    
  A man that is busy, and inquisitive, is commonly envious.  For to know much of other men's matters, cannot be because all that ado may concern his own estate; therefore it must needs be, that he taketh a kind of play-pleasure, in looking upon the fortunes of others.  Neither can he, that mindeth but his own business, find much matter for envy.  For envy is a gadding passion, and walketh the streets, and doth not keep home: Non est curiosus, quin idem sit malevolus.

  Men of noble birth, are noted to be envious towards new men, when they rise.  For the distance is altered, and it is like a deceit of the eye, that when others come on, they think themselves, go back.

Deformed persons, and eunuchs, and old men, and bastards, are envious.  For he that cannot possibly mend his own case, will do what he can, to impair another's; except these defects light upon a very brave, and heroical nature, which thinketh to make his natural wants part of his honor; in that it should be said, that an eunuch, or a lame man, did such great matters; affecting the honor of a miracle; as it was in Narses the eunuch, and Agesilaus and Tamberlanes, that were lame men.  
    
  The same is the case of men, that rise after calamities and misfortunes.  For they are as men fallen out with the times; and think other men's harms, a redemption of their own sufferings.  

  They that desire to excel in too many matters, out of levity and vain glory, are ever envious.  For they cannot want work; it being impossible, but many, in some one of those things, should surpass them.  Which was the character of Adrian the Emperor; that mortally envied poets, and painters, and artificers, in works wherein he had a vein to excel.
  
  Lastly, near kinsfolks, and fellows in office, and those that have been bred together, are more apt to envy their equals, when they are raised.  For it doth upbraid unto them their own fortunes, and pointeth at them, and cometh oftener into their  remembrance, and incurreth likewise more into the note of others; and envy ever redoubleth from  speech and fame.  Cain's envy was the more vile and malignant, towards his brother Abel, because when his sacrifice was better accepted, there was no body to look on.  Thus much for those, that are apt to envy.

  Concerning those that are more or less subject to envy: First, persons of eminent virtue, when they are advanced, are less envied.  For their fortune seemeth , but due unto them; and no man envieth the payment of a debt, but rewards and liberality rather.  Again, envy is ever joined with the comparing of a man's self; and where there is no comparison, no envy; and therefore kings are not envied, but by kings.  Nevertheless it is to be noted, that unworthy persons are most envied, at their first coming in, and afterwards overcome it better; whereas contrariwise, persons of worth and merit are most envied, when their fortune continueth long.  For by that time, though their virtue be the same, yet it hath not the same lustre; for fresh men grow up that darken it.

        Persons of noble blood, are less envied in their rising.  For it seemeth but right done to their birth. Besides, there seemeth not much added to theirfortune; and envy is as the sunbeams, that beat hotter upon a bank, or steep rising ground, than upon a flat.  And for the same reason, those that are advanced by degrees, are less envied than those that are advanced suddenly and per saltum.    

  Those that have joined with their honor great travels, cares, or perils, are less subject to envy. For men think that they earn their honors hardly, and pity them sometimes; and pity ever healeth envy.  Wherefore you shall observe, that the more deep and sober sort of politic persons, in their greataess, are ever bemoaning themselves, what a life they lead; chanting a quanta patimur! Not that they feel it so, but only to abate the edge of envy.  But this is to be understood, of business that is laid upon men, and not such, as they call unto themselves.  For nothing increaseth envy more, than an unnecessary and ambitious engrossing of business.  And nothing doth extinguish envy more, than for a great person to preserve all other inferior officers, in their full lights and pre-eminences of their places.  For by that means, there be so many screens between him and envy.  
     
  Above all, those are most subject to envy, which carry the greatness of their fortunes, in an insolent and proud manner; being never well, but while they are showing how great they are, either by outward pomp, or by triumphing over all opposition or competition; whereas wise men will rather do sacrifice to envy, in suffering themselves sometimes of purpose to be crossed, and overborne in things that do not much concern them.  Notwithstanding, so much is true, that the carriage of greatness, in a plain and open manner (so it be without arrogancy and vain glory) doth draw less envy, than if it be in a more crafty and cunning fashion.  For in that course, a man doth but disavow fortune; and seemeth to be conscious of his own want in worth; and doth but teach others, to envy him.
  
  Lastly, to conclude this part; as we said in the beginning, that the act of envy had somewhat in it of witchcraft, so there is no other cure of envy, but the cure of witchcraft; and that is, to remove the lot (as they call it) and to lay it upon another. For which purpose, the wiser sort of great persons, bring in ever upon the stage somebody upon whom to derive the envy, that would come upon themselves; sometimes upon ministers and servants; sometimes upon colleagues and associates; and the like; and for that turn there are never wanting, some persons of violent and undertaking natures, who, so they may have power and business, will take it at any cost.
  
  Now, to speak of public envy.  There is yet some good in public envy, whereas in private, there is none.  For public envy, is as an ostracism, that eclipseth men, when they grow too great.  And therefore it is a bridle also to great ones, to keep them within bounds
 

        Lastly, to conclude this part; as we said in the beginning, that the act of envy had somewhat in it of witchcraft, so there is no other cure of envy, but the cure of witchcraft; and that is, to remove the lot (as they call it) and to lay it upon another. For which purpose, the wiser sort of great persons, bring in ever upon the stage somebody upon whom to derive the envy, that would come upon themselves; sometimes upon ministers and servants; sometimes upon colleagues and associates; and the like; and for that turn there are never wanting, some persons of violent and undertaking natures, who, so they may have power and business, will take it at any cost.
  
  Now, to speak of public envy.  There is yet some good in public envy, whereas in private, there is none.  For public envy, is as an ostracism, that eclipseth men, when they grow too great.  And therefore it is a bridle also to great ones, to keep them within bounds.  
  
  This envy, being in the Latin word invidia, goeth in the modern language, by the name of discontentment; of which we shall speak, in hand-ling sedition.  It is a disease, in a state, like to infection.  For as infection spreadeth upon that which is sound, and tainteth it; so when envy is gotten once into a state, it traduceth even the best actions thereof, and turneth them into an ill odor.  And therefore there is little won, by intermingling of plausible actions.  For that doth argue but a weakness, and fear of envy, which hurteth so much the more, as it is likewise usual in infections; which if you fear them, you call them upon you.   

  This public envy, seemeth to beat chiefly uponprincipal officers or ministers, rather than upon kings, and estates themselves.  But this is a surerule, that if the envy upon the minister be great, when the cause of it in him is small; or if the envy be general, in a manner upon all the ministers of an estate; then the envy (though hidden) is truly upon the state itself.  And so much of public envy or discontentment, and the difference thereof from private envy, which was handled in the first place.  
     
  We will add this in general, touching the affection of envy; that of all other affections, it is the most importune and continual.  For of other affections, there is occasion given, but now and then; and therefore it was well said, Invidia festos dies non agit: for it is ever working upon some or other. And it is also noted, that love and envy do make a man pine, which other affections do not, because they are not so continual.  It is also the vilest affection, and the most depraved; for which cause it is the proper attribute of the devil, who is called, the envious man, that soweth tares amongst the wheat by night; as it always cometh to pass, that envy worketh subtilly, and in the dark, and to the prejudice of good things, such as is the wheat.  

 
 

                             
  世人历来注意到,所有情感中最令人神魂颠倒着莫过于爱情和嫉妒。这两种感情都会激起强烈的欲望,而且均可迅速转化成联想和幻觉,容易钻进世人的眼睛,尤其容易降到被爱被妒者身上;这些便是导致蛊惑的要点,如果世间真有蛊惑的话。我们同样可以见到,《圣经》中把嫉妒称为“毒眼”,占星术上则把不吉之星力叫作“凶象”,以致世人似乎至今还承认,当嫉妒行为发生时,嫉妒者会眼红或曰红眼。而且有人更为明察秋毫,竟注意到红眼最伤人之际莫过于被嫉妒者正踌躇满志或春风得意之时,因为那种得意劲儿会使炉火燃得更旺。另外在这种时候,被嫉妒者的情绪最溢于言表,因此最容易遭受打击。

  但暂且不谈这些蹊跷之处(虽说这些蹊跷并非不值得在适当的场合思量思量),笔者在此只想探讨一下哪些人好嫉妒他人,哪些人会遭受嫉妒,以及公众的嫉妒和私人间的嫉妒有何不同。

  自身无德者常嫉妒他人之德,因为人心的滋养要么是自身之善,要么是他人之恶,而缺乏自身之善者必然要摄取他人之恶,于是凡无望达到他人之德行境地者便会极力贬低他人以求得平衡。

  好管闲事且好深隐私者通常都好嫉妒,因为劳神费力地去打探别人的事情绝非是由于那些事与打探者的利害有关,所以其原因必定是打探者在旁观他人祸福时能获得一种视剧般的乐趣。而一心只管自家事的人无甚嫉妒的由来,因为嫉妒是一种爱游荡的感情,它总在街头闲逛,不肯呆在家里,所以古人说:

  “好管闲事者必定没安好心。”

  出身贵族者在新人晋爵时常生妒意,因为两者之间的差距缩短;而且这就像是看朱成碧,明明是别人上升,他们却看成是自己下降。 

        宦官、老人、残疾者和私生子都好嫉妒,因没法弥补自身缺陷的人总要干方百计给别人也造成缺陷,除非有上述缺陷者具有勇敢无畏的英雄气概,有志把自身的固有缺陷变成其荣誉之一部分。这样人们就会说:某宦官或瘸子竟创下如此殊勋伟业;正如宦官纳西斯以及瘸子阿偈西劳和帖木儿曾努力求得奇迹般的荣誉一样。

  在大苦大难后升迁的人也好嫉妒,因为他们就像时代的落伍者似的,以为别人受到伤害就可补偿自己曾经历的苦难。

  那些因其轻薄和自负而想在各方面都胜过他人者亦常嫉妒,因为他们绝不会缺少嫉妒的对象,在他们想争胜的诸多方面之某一方面,不可能没有许多人会胜过他们。罗马皇帝哈德良就是这种嫉妒者,他善诗画和工艺,因此他非常嫉妒真正的诗人、画家和技师。

  最后还有同族亲友、官场同僚和少时伙伴,这些人在平辈人升迁时更容易产生嫉妒。因为对他们来说,平辈的升迁不啻是在批评自己的身份,是在对自己进行指责。这种升迁会更经常地进入他们的记忆,同样也会更多地引起旁人的注意,而旁人对这种升迁的传扬往往会令嫉妒者妒意更浓。该隐对其弟亚伯的嫉妒之所以更为卑鄙邪恶,就因为亚伯的供奉被上帝悦纳时并没有旁人看见。关于好嫉妒之人暂且就说到这里。

  接下来笔者要谈谈那些或多或少会遭嫉妒的人的情况。首先,有大德者步入老年后较少遭人嫉妒,因为他们的幸运已显得不过是他们应得的报偿,而对应得的报偿谁也不会嫉妒,世人只嫉妒过于慷慨的奖赏和施舍。另一方面,嫉妒常产生在与人攀比之时,可以说没有攀比就没有嫉妒,故此为君者不会被其他人妒忌,除非妒忌者亦是君王。不过应该注意到,卑微之人在发迹之初最遭人妒忌,其后妒忌会逐渐减弱;但与此相反,品质优秀者则是在他们的好运赓续不断时遭妒最甚,因此时他们的优点虽依然如故,但已不如当初那样耀眼,后起之秀已使其黯然失色。

        出身贵族者在升迁时较少遭人嫉妒,因为那看上去无非是出身高贵的必然结果,再说这种锦上添花似乎也不会给他们带来更多的好处。且嫉妒犹如日光,它射在陡坡峭壁上比射在平地上更使人感觉其热;与此同理,逐渐高升者比骤然腾达者较少遭人嫉妒。

  那些一直把自己的显赫与辛劳、焦虑或风险连在一起的人较少成为嫉妒的对象,因为世人会觉得他们的高位显取来之不易,甚至有时候还会可怜他们,而怜悯往往可以治愈嫉妒。故此世人可见,一些较老谋深算的政界人物在位高权重时常常向人家诉苦,说自己活得多苦多累;其实他们并非真那样感觉,而只是想减轻别人的嫉妒而已。不过人们能体谅的是那种依命行事的辛劳,而不是那种没事找事的忙碌,因为最让人妒上加妒的事就是那种毫无必要且野心勃勃的事必躬亲;所以对位高权重者来说,保证各级属下的充分权利和应有身份是消除嫉妒的最佳方法,因为用这种方法不啻在自己与嫉妒之间筑起了一道道屏障。

  因大富大贵而趾高气扬者尤其易遭妒忌,因为这种人不炫耀其富贵就不舒服,结果他们或是在举止言谈上神气活现,或是总要压倒一切相反意见或竞争对手。可聪明人则宁愿吃点亏而给嫉妒者一点实惠,有时故意在某些与己关系不大的事情上让对手占占上风。但尽管如此,以下事实仍不谬:以直率坦荡的态度对待富资比用虚伪狡诈的态度更少遭人妒忌,只要那直率坦荡中没有傲慢与自负的成分;因为用后一种态度者无非是否认自己的幸运,而那会让人觉得他自己都感到他不配享受富贵,因此他恰好是教别人来嫉妒自己。

  最后让笔者赘言几句来结束这个部分。如本文开篇所言,嫉妒行为有几分巫术的性质,因此治嫉妒的最好方法就是治巫术的方法,也就是移开世人所谓的“符咒”,使之镇在别人头上。为达到这一目的,有些聪明的大人物总是让别人替自己抛头露面,从而使本会降到自己身上的嫉妒降到他人身上,这种他人有时候是侍从仆役,有时候是同僚伙伴或诸如此类的角色;而要找这种替身,世间还真不乏一些雄心勃勃的冒昧之徒,只要能获得权位,这种人不惜付出任何代价。

  现在且来谈谈公众的嫉妒。虽说私人间的嫉妒有百害而无一利,但公众的嫉妒却还有一点好处,因为它就像陶片放逐法,可除去那些位高专权者,所以它对其他大人物亦是一种制约,可使他们循规蹈矩。 

        这种在拉丁语中写作invidia的嫉妒在现代语言中又叫“不满情绪”,关于这点笔者将在谈及叛乱时加以讨论。公众的嫉妒对国家来说是一种可能蔓延的疾病,正如传染病可侵入健全的肌体并使之犯疾一样,国民一旦产生这种嫉妒,他们甚至会反对最合理的国家行为,并使这些行为背上恶名;而为此采取宠络民心的举措也几乎无济于事,因为这正好表明当局害怕嫉妒,软弱可欺,结果造成的损害更大。这也像通常的传染病一样,你越怕它,它越要找上门来。

  这种公众的嫉妒似乎主要是针对高官大臣,而不是针对君王和国家本身。但有一条千真万确的规律,那就是如果某位大臣并无甚过失却招来公众强烈的嫉妒,或是公众的嫉妒在某种程度上是针对一国之所有大臣,那嫉妒的矛头(虽隐而不露)实际上就是指向国家本身了。以上所言便是公众的嫉妒,或日公众的不满,以及它与私人间的嫉妒之不同,而关于后者前文已经论及。

  最后笔者再就嫉妒之情泛泛补充几句。在人类所有情感中,嫉妒是一种最纠缠不休的感情,因其他感情的生发都有特定的时间场合,只是偶尔为之;所以古人说得好:嫉妒从不休假;因为它总在某些人心中作祟。世人还注意到,爱情和嫉妒的确会使人衣带渐宽,而其他感情却不致如此,原因是其他感情都不像爱情和嫉妒那样寒暑无间。嫉妒亦是最卑劣最堕落的一种感情,因此它是魔鬼的固有属性,魔鬼就是那个趁黑夜在麦田里撒稗种的嫉妒者;而就像一直所发生的那样,嫉妒也总是在暗中施展诡计,偷偷损害像麦黍之类的天下良物。

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